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Ireland is known for many things, gaelic, green grass, bog people, and of course the people who make this place magical. While researching, my ancestors were named a million different things! I didn't realize that the fifty John O'Neills had other name parts as well.
Do you know these names?
Back in time O'Cleary was the first recorded Irish surname-O'Clerigh. It was seen in Lord of Aidhne, Tigherneach Ua Cleirigh, died in County Galway back in the year 916 A.D. In the beginning, names were not passed down from parent to child. It was usually someone's fathers name. So a person was first a "mac" than a fathers name. Mac meant "son of." Women were "nic"and then "o" was developed to say descendant of. The Normans and upper classes started the traditional family naming. Then there were descriptive surnames that mean different things about physical characteristics.
1. Murphy — The Anglicized version of the Irish surname Ó Murchadha and Mac Murchadha,meaning “sea warrior.”
2. Kelly — The origin of this Irish name is uncertain. An Anglicized version of the Irish name Ó Ceallaigh, it can describe a warrior or mean “white-headed,” “frequenting churches,” or “descendant of Ceallach.”
3. O’Sullivan — (Ó Súileabháin or Ó Súilleabháin in Irish). In 1890, 90 percent of the O’Sullivans were estimated to be in Munster. Many people agree that the basic surname means “eye,” but they do not agree whether the rest of the name means “one-eyed,” “hawk-eyed,” “black-eyed,” or something else.
4. Walsh — This name came to Ireland via British soldiers during the Norman invasion of Ireland and means “from Wales.” It’s derived from Breathnach or Brannagh.
5. Smith — This surname does not necessarily suggest English ancestry, as some think; often the surname was derived from Gabhann (which means “smith”).
6. O’Brien — This name came down from Brian Boru (941-1014) who was king of Munster; his descendants took the name Ó Briain.
7. Byrne (also Byrnes; O’Byrne) — from the Irish name Ó Broin (“raven”; also, descendant of Bran); this dates to the ancient Celtic chieftain Bran mac Máelmórda, a King of Leinster in the 11thcentury.
8. Ryan — This name has various possible origins: from the Gaelic Ó Riagháin (grandson or descendant of Rían) or Ó Maoilriain (grandson/descendant of Maoilriaghain) or Ó Ruaidhín(grandson/descendant of the little red one). Or it may be a simplification of the name Mulryan. It means “little king.”
9. O’Connor — From Ó Conchobhair (grandson or descendant of Conchobhar; “lover of hounds”).
10. O’Neill — Anglicized from the Gaelic Ua Néill (grandson or descendant of Niall). The name is connected with meanings including “vehement” and “champion.” The main O’Niall family is descended from the historic “Niall of the Nine Hostages.”
Courtesy of Ancestry.com
Cavemen DNA was recently distinguished off of sediment in Vindja Cave Croatia. It was collected in long range samples, scraped and the then analyzed. In a lab, they found DNA from a wooly mammoth, cave hyena, wooly rhinos and nethanderals. Basically, analyzing sediment is worth it.
Cavemen loved escargot, and hated spiders!
One more funny caveman video
Nurses were in the front line, specifically American nurses. They followed the army after their landing on D-Day, and slept outside in wind, rain, and artillery shells. I read a story in my research of one particular nurse while bathing who had used her helmet to scoop water onto herself. Shelling began, and she immediately sat naked in the tub with the helmet firmly planted on her head. Nurses were on the front lines, scooping up intestines and putting them back in place. American nurses during the winter of 1944 were following troops to the dragon's teeth, the area where the Battle of Hurtgen Forest took place.
The Navy recruited women, left and right but the US army never officially did. While researching there were some harrowing first person accounts.
Some had their nose blown off; some had no jaw; some were sans chin, nose and jaw; and a few had only a forehead left. I went through this ward and stood in amazement and perfect wonder how these valiant nurses dealt with the problem of feeding these cases. Most of them were tube fed, and hours were spent getting nourishment into them. Some were so horribly disfigured they were in a private area from the others. I gnashed my teeth at war. These are the living dead, who will spend the rest of their lives in a closed section of some Stateside hospital. The fatal bullet was more merciful.
Despite the hardships of war many women were drawn to the pay and the experience. After school several signed contracts stating that they would become nurses where needed in the local areas. The government needed this, one because there was an alarming shortage of medical personnel in the USA during the war, and two because they wanted to be assured that those who were working as nurses in the war would use that training apart from the US Army.
Nurses used Sulfanilamide, a sulfa drug that is credited with saving countless lives. Soldiers were taught to sprinkle it on every open wound. Penicillin was also used to save lives. Plasma was also a technique to replace blood loss in the body, and morphine was available to inject on the pain site.
"Dear God, please bring those boys back to us alive and well. But if they are hurt, give us strength, courage, and wisdom to be ready to help them." And when the men did arrive needing help, she said, "it made me feel mighty proud to do my little bit in helping to take care of them."
More nursing history can be found at the Museum of Nursing History in Pennsylvania.
See a replica of Florence Nightingale’s dress in the Atrium of St. Benilde Tower and an enlarged framed letter from Miss Nightingale to Alice Fisher, Foundress of the Philadelphia General Hospital School of Nursing, “Old Blockley,” (Christmas 1877). Read student ledgers from the turn of the century, a World War I Diary, or find your nursing school’s yearbook.
An old copper mine that was transformed into a prison in 1773. It was used heavily for some time. The people who sat in its cells might still hang around, the unfinished business they left in life still lingering behind.
"In its time, New-Gate Prison saw its share of fatal "insurrections." In 1806, one involving 30 men started in the blacksmith and nail shop, and ended with the death of inmate Aaron Goomer. Another occurred in 1823, this featuring over 100 prisoners, two of whom were fatally shot by guards.
And obviously, there were failed escape attempts.
One of the most notorious escape-gone-awry stories happened in 1827, when Abel Starkey fell to his death while trying to escape by climbing up a rope that had been dangling in the well (which was accessible from down below in addition on top). No mention if the rope had been made of knotted bedsheets or not.
As with any location associated with such a dark history, New-Gate Prison has gained a reputation as a haunted spot. Over the years, there have been stories of spirits allegedly spotted roaming the grounds, as well as ethereal voices supposedly heard in the mine's tunnels."
Courtesy of damnedct.com
!8th century prisons were a bit harsher than 21st century versions. Truly, a copper mine was seen as a fit place to hide the scourges! The old copper mine was owned by a feisty tavern owner. He was convinced to become the prison warden. He was the one that decided to use the old mine tunnels as prison cells-easy peasy. The first inmate was a thief, with an 18 day stay before he escaped with the help of a lover. Plenty disappeared and were never located-several were able to simply run by the guards.
So, the prison was guarded heavily. The security improved drastically and it ushered in an era of darkness. Riots were bloody, locals and inmates called it "Hell" literally, not too far from it if you have ever been inside.
WHo was the first prisoner?
His name was John Hinson, and had done a lot of time in other county jails. He was a peddler of stolen wares, and he was good at talking his way out of things. The judge who sent him to Old Newgate said : He is sly, ornery, and cunning as a viper." On December 22, there was a huge snowstorm it was over two feet, wet and heavy. Twigs and limbs began to break off, the tavern owner was sad and miserable. So, he called down to Hinson, to talk to him for comfort and solace. Every so often he would echo down the chamber-old mine tunnel and Hinson would reply. Eventually Hinson escaped, and the jailer never knew it. "His rescuer, it turned out, was a faithful mistress who had tramped over the snow-bound hills with a 100 foot coil of rope over her shoulder, and let it down the well shaft."
The odors unbearable, the floor covered with a thick pasty slime-this truly was hell.
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